Eur J Surg Oncol. 2020 Nov 2:S0748-7983(20)30866-0. doi: 10.1016/j.ejso.2020.10.029. Online ahead of print.
Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) is an uncommon form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (cancer of the immune system) that can develop around breast implants. Breast implants are among the most commonly used medical devices for cosmetic or reconstructive purposes. In the past few years, the number of women with breast implants diagnosed with anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) has increased, and several studies have suggested a direct association between breast implants
and an increased risk of this disease. Although it has been hypothesized that chronic stimulation of the immune system caused by implant materials and biofilms as well as a possible genetic predisposition play an important role in this disease, the cellular and molecular causes of BIA-ALCL are not fully understood. This review aims to describe the current understanding around the environmental and molecular drivers of BIA-ALCL as well as the genetic and chromosomal abnormalities identified in this disease to date.