Ann Hematol. 2020 Nov 9. doi: 10.1007/s00277-020-04342-6. Online ahead of print.
Although the overall clinical outcome of patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has significantly improved, some patients still experience relapsed/refractory disease. In the rituximab era, real-world data about relapsed/refractory DLBCL are limited. To clarify the clinical outcome and prognostic factors in these patients, we conducted a retrospective analysis using data from the population-based Osaka Cancer Registry (OCR) from 2010 to 2015. In total, 189 adult patients aged up to
70 years who received CHOP or a CHOP-like regimen in combination with rituximab, as well as a subsequent second-line therapy, were included in the analysis. The median age was 63 years (range, 24-70). Age (> 63 years), the duration of first progression-free survival (PFS), and the use of rituximab in the second-line chemotherapy were prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) after the second-line treatment. In this cohort, 48 and 11 patients received autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), respectively. The probabilities of 3-year OS after autologous and allogeneic HSCT were 55.7% and 18.2%, respectively. In conclusion, we found that the clinical outcome of patients with relapsed/refractory DLBCL in the rituximab era was unsatisfactory. Further improvements in treatment strategies, including novel agents, are needed.