Gracia-Cazaña T, et al. Actas Dermosifiliogr 2020 - Review.
Skin cancer is the most frequent type of cancer in humans. While exposure to solar radiation is the most widely known and relevant causal factor, the different degrees of individual risk have not been fully elucidated. Epidemiological studies show how the risk of skin cancer is affected by other types of radiation (eg, ionizing radiation), pesticides, particulate matter in air pollution, toxins (eg, arsenic) in water and some foods. Some living entities, such as polyomavirus and human
papillomavirus, can also cause specific types of cancer. Lastly, lifestyle factors such as stress, sleep, and exercise may play a role, although only a few studies shed light on these factors. The abovementioned factors make up the exposome of skin cancer, that is, the set of environmental exposures that, together with the genome and microbiome, determine the onset of disease.