Front Bioeng Biotechnol. 2020 Aug 11;8:943. doi: 10.3389/fbioe.2020.00943. eCollection 2020.
Melanoma is one of the most aggressive skin cancers, and the American Cancer Society reports that every hour, one person dies from melanoma. While there are a number of treatments currently available for melanoma (e.g., surgery, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and radiation therapy), they face several problems including inadequate response rates, high toxicity, severe side effects due to non-specific targeting of anti-cancer drugs, and the development of multidrug resistance during prolonged
treatment. To improve chemo-drug therapeutic efficiency and overcome these mentioned limitations, a multifunctional nanoparticle has been developed to effectively target and treat melanoma. Specifically, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) were coated with a cellular membrane derived from the T cell hybridoma, 19LF6 endowed with a melanoma-specific anti-gp100/HLA-A2 T-cell receptor (TCR) and loaded with an FDA-approved melanoma chemotherapeutic drug Trametinib. T-cell membrane camouflaged Trametinib loaded PLGA NPs displayed high stability, hemo- and cyto-compatibility. They also demonstrated membrane coating dependent drug release profiles with the most sustained release from the NPs proportional with the highest amount of membrane used. 19LF6 membrane-coated NPs produced a threefold increase in cellular uptake toward the melanoma cell line in vitro compared to that of the bare nanoparticle. Moreover, the binding kinetics and cellular uptake of these particles were shown to be membrane/TCR concentration-dependent. The in vitro cancer killing efficiencies of these NPs were significantly higher compared to other NP groups and aligned with binding and uptake characteristics. Particles with the higher membrane content (greater anti-gp100 TCR content) were shown to be more effective when compared to the free drug and negative controls. In vivo biodistribution studies displayed the theragnostic capabilities of these NPs with more than a twofold increase in the tumor retention compared to the uncoated and non-specific membrane coated groups. Based on these studies, these T-cell membrane coated NPs emerge as a potential theragnostic carrier for imaging and therapy applications associated with melanoma.